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Location : CRF Main Building, IIT,KHARAGPUR 721302, CRF

Prof. Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar
Department of Metallurgical & Materials engineering

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X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline material and can provide information on unit cell dimensions. It is designed for the structural characterization of the full range of materials from powders, amorphous and polycrystalline materials to epitaxial multi-layered thin films at ambient and non-ambient conditions.


Prof. Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar
Department of Metallurgical & Materials engineering


2D-X-Ray Diffraction Lab

Model: - D8 Discover Diffractometer System
Manufacturer: Bruker, Germany

X- Ray source: - Xray tube for microfocus source copper target

Cu- anode, metal ceramic microfocus Xray tube, spot focus for incoatec microfocus source (1mS).

Voltage: Maximum 50 kV
X ray window: Beryllium
Air cooled.

Detector: - Eiger2 R 500K detector 0/90 degree.
Centric Eulerian Cradle (Vertical) :-
The Centric Eulerian Cradle integrates Chi and Phi rotations and X-Y-Z translations into one sample stage with minimum space requirements.

Technical data: 2theta circle, depending on optics -4° to + 170°
Chi circle -11° to 80°
Phi circle unlimited.
X translation: -40 mm to +40 mm
Y translation: -40 mm to + 40 mm
Z translation: 2mm
Maximum sample hight: depending upon sample holder 20 mm

Double laser unit: - The double is an assembly for alignment of sample to the center of vertical goniometer. The unit consists of two red light lasers and a camera.

Utility and Working Principal

X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) is a technique used in materials science to determine the crystallographic structure of a material. XRD works by irradiating a material with incident X-rays and then measuring the intensities and scattering angles of the X-rays that leave the material. A primary use of XRD analysis is the identification of materials based on their diffraction pattern. As well as phase identification, XRD also yields information on how the actual structure deviates from the ideal one, owing to internal stresses and defects. Crystals are regular arrays of atoms, whilst X-rays can be considered as waves of electromagnetic radiation. Crystal atoms scatter incident X-rays, primarily through interaction with the atoms’ electrons. This phenomenon is known as elastic scattering; the electron is known as the scatterer. A regular array of scatterers produces a regular array of spherical waves. In the majority of directions, these waves cancel each other out through destructive interference, however, they add constructively in a few specific directions, as determined by Bragg’s law:

2dsinθ = nλ

Where d is the spacing between diffracting planes, ? is the incident angle, n is an integer, and ? is the beam wavelength. The specific directions appear as spots on the diffraction pattern called reflections. Consequently, X-ray diffraction patterns result from electromagnetic waves impinging on a regular array of scatterers. X-rays are used to produce the diffraction pattern because their wavelength, ?, is often the same order of magnitude as the spacing, d, between the crystal planes (1-100 angstroms).

  • Phase Identification and quantification, structure determination and refinement, Micro strain and crystallite size analysis.
  • X-Ray reflectometry, Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID), High-resolution XRD, crystal orientation analysis
  • Residual Stress analysis, Texture and pole figures

Sample Details

  • Samples must not contain volatile, corrosive, toxic and radioactive substances and/or these substances must not be evolved during the test.
  • The sample should not contain radioactive ,toxic and explosive materials.
  • Care must be taken to create a flat upper surface and to achieve a random distribution of lattice orientations.
  • Smaller sample dimensions are preferred. Sample with thickness 5mm to 10 mm length/width/diameter are ideal.
Note: The XRD lab reserve the right to reject any accepted analysis request at its discretion in the interest safety of the instrument and its operators.

Prof. J. Dutta Majumdar, MME Dept., PIC (Metallic Materials)
Prof. K. Biswas, MME Dept, Co-PIC (Non- Metallic Materials)
Prof. Somjeet Biswas, MME Dept, Co -PIC (Metallic Materials)
Prof. S.Roy MME Dept PIC(Non- Metallic Materials)

Mr. Subhabrata Chakraborty, Technical Officer, CRF, In-Charge (Maintenance)
Mr. Madapana Dileep, RS, MME, Research Scholar Coordinator


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