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X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) is the most widely used surface analysis technique because it can be applied to a broad range of materials and provides valuable quantitative and chemical state information from the surface of the material being studied. The average depth of analysis for an XPS measurement is approximately 5 nm. The XPS instruments provide the ability to obtain spectra with a lateral spatial resolution as small as 7.5 µm. Spatial distribution information can be obtained by scanning the micro focused x-ray beam across the sample surface. Depth distribution information can be obtained by combining XPS measurements with ion milling (sputtering) to characterize thin film structures. The information XPS provides about surface layers or thin film structures is important for many industrial and research applications where surface or thin film composition plays a critical role in performance including: nanomaterials, photovoltaics, catalysis, corrosion, adhesion, electronic devices and packaging, magnetic media, display technology, surface treatments, and thin film coatings used for numerous applications.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface characterization technique that can analyze a sample to a depth of 2 to 5 nanometres (nm). XPS is based on Einstein’s photoelectric effect in which x-ray beam containing k-alpha x-rays is focused on the sample. The absorption of incident x-rays results in the ejection of electrons. XPS is conducted in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, around 10-9 millibar (mbar). In a typical XPS spectrum some of the photo-ejected electrons inelastically scatter through the sample enroute to the surface, while others undergo prompt emission and suffer no energy loss in escaping the surface and into the surrounding vacuum. Once these photo-ejected electrons are in the vacuum, they are collected by an electron analyzer that measures their kinetic energy. An electron energy analyzer produces an energy spectrum of intensity (number of photo-ejected electrons versus time) versus binding energy. Each prominent energy peak on the spectrum corresponds to a specific element.
Note: The XPS lab reserve the right to reject any accepted analysis request at its discretion in the interest safety of the instrument and its operators.
Prof. J. Dutta Majumdar, MME Dept. PIC (Metals/alloys, their oxides and compound)
Prof. S. K. Srivastava, Phys. Dept., Co-PIC(Metals/alloys, their oxides and compound)
Prof. D. Pradhan, Maters. Sci. Center, PIC (Ceramics and Advanced Materials)
Prof. R. Mitra, Metallurgical and materials Engineering, Co-PIC (Ceramics and Advanced Materials)
Prof. S. Chatterjee, RTC, PIC (Polymer and Rubber)
Prof. S. Banerjee, Maters. Sci. Center, Co-PIC (Polymer and Rubber)
Mr. Vishal Gupta, Technical Officer, CRF, In-Charge (Maintenance)
Mr. Shree Krishna, RS, SNST, Research Scholar Coordinator
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